Bremen Laboratory for Paleo-, Rock and Environmental Magnetics
Methods and instruments of laboratory magnetics
Team: Christian Hilgenfeldt (System Engineer), Liane Brück (Lab Technician), Heike Piero (Data Management)
Rooms: University of Bremen, GEO Building, Rooms 4050/4240/4250

Techniques: The Bremen Magnetics Lab is specialized in measuring weakly magnetic materials such as sediments and minerals. We cover all relevant established paleo- and rock magnetic methods:

Vector measurement of natural remanence and artificial remanences (IRM, ARM, GRM, VRM) of single samples (cubes, cykinders) and u-channels; magnetic hysteresis, susceptibility and anisotropy; thermomagnetics at low (4-400K) and high (270-800K) temperatures and fields up to 7T; FORC analyses and REM analytics of magnetic extracts.

Pneumatic sample changer of the fully automated Bremen 2G Superconducting Rock Magnetometer

Superconducting Rock Magnetometer 2G Enterprises 755 HR
Team: Thomas Frederichs, Liane Brück, Christian Hilgenfeldt
Room: University of Bremen, GEO Building, Room 4240

System: The remanent magnetization of rock and sediment samples determined by this magnetometer provides the basis for numerous scientific investigations. Measurements of natural and synthetic magnetizations may be performed on up to 1.5 m long so called u-channels or discrete samples (cubic and inch samples) as well. When used for discrete samples the Bremen magnetometer is used in an in-house developed automated mode which allows for the autonomous exchange of samples. This provides a measurement capacity for almost 100 samples per 24 hours.

2G Magnetometer Manual

Mullender T., Frederichs T., Hilgenfeldt C., de Groot L., Fabian K., Dekkers M. (2016)
Automated paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data acquisition with an in-line horizontal “2G” system
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 17, 3546 - 3559
doi: 10.1002/2016GC006436

Bremen 2G rock magnetometer

Magnetic Properties Measurement System Quantum Design MPMS-XL7
Team: Thomas Frederichs (Lab Manager), Liane Brück, Christian Hilgenfeldt
Room: University of Bremen, GEO Building, Room 4250

System: With the MPMS-XL7 we determine the temperature-dependent magnetic properties of sample material in peak dc fields of ±7 Tesla in temperatures ranging from 1.9 to 400 K. The instrument measures magnetic hysteresis loops, remanent magnetizations as well as the frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility. The sample size may be 5 mm in diameter and 9 mm in length to the maximum. The use of the optional oven with a maximum temperature of 800 K reduces the sample size to a length of 5 mm and a diameter of 1.6 mm. The device is equipped with the EverCool Option for re-liquefying Helium gas. This allows for an almost permanent operation of the system.

MPMS XL Brochure pdf-File (9.54 MB)

Frederichs T., von Dobeneck T., Bleil U., Dekkers M. (2003)
Towards the identification of siderite, rhodochrosite, and vivianite in sediments by their low-temperature magnetic properties
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 28, 669 - 679
doi: 10.1016/S1474-7065(03)00121-9

Kosterov A., Frederichs T., von Dobeneck T. (2006)
Low-temperature magnetic properties of rhodochrosite (MnCO3)
Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 154, 234 - 242
doi: 10.1016/j.pepi.2005.09.011

Kosterov A., Fabian K. (2008)
Twinning control of magnetic properties of multidomain magnetite below the Verwey transition revealed by measurements on individual particles
Geophysical Journal International, 174, 93 - 106
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2008.03811.x

MPMS XL-7 with control unit

Alternating Gradient Magnetometer PMC MicroMag 2900
Team: Thomas Frederichs
Room: University of Bremen, GEO Building, Room 4050

System: The Micromag 2900 performs measurements of magnetic hysteresis and of remanent magnetization (curves of acquisition and demagnetization curves) at ambient temperature in magnetic peak fields of 1.4 T. Samples may consist of powders or rock fragments with a weight of about 10 mg. The measurements are used for the magnetic characterization of samples and allow for semi-quantitative estimations of concentration, mineralogy and magnetic grain size (domain state). Furthermore, it is possible to perform First Order Reversal Curves (FORC).

von Dobeneck T. (1996)
A systematic analysis of natural magnetic mineral assemblages based on modelling hysteresis loops with coercivity-related hyperbolic basis functions
Geophysical Journal International, 124, 675 - 694
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1996.tb05632.x

MicroMag 2900

Horizontal Magnetic Translation Balance
Team: Adrian Höfken
Room: University of Bremen, GEO Building, Room 4170

System: The Horizontal Magnetic Translation Balance is used for temperature dependent measurements of magnetic properties between room temperature and 970 K in fields up to 150 mT. An optional cooling vessel may be used to extend the temperature range down to 80 K. For the measurements dried powder samples with a mass of few 10 mg are used. The actively, feedback controlled measurement system uses a modern data acquisition system and reaches accuracies sufficient for measurements of weak magnetic marine sediments. The temperature paths may be adapted to fit the individual sample material and targeted questions.

Bremen Horizontal Magnetic Balance

Agico Susceptometer KappaBridge KLY-2
Team: Thomas Frederichs, Liane Brück
Room: University of Bremen, GEO Building, Room 4220
System: The KappaBridge KLY-2 is used in order to determine the magnetic susceptibility at ambient temperature either as a bulk measurement or as the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. The latter is achieved by the measurement of magnetic susceptibility in 15 different orientations. While bulk susceptibility is mainly a measure for the concentration of magnetominerals, the anisotropy provides information about the orientation of the magnetic particles within a matrix due to the presence of bottom water currents or flow textures.

KappaBridge KLY-2

Bartington Susceptometer MS2
Team: Thomas Frederichs, Liane Brück
System: The MS2 may be used in combination with different sensor types according to the respective needs. A so called bulk sensor MS2B allows the determination of the magnetic susceptibility of discrete samples with a volume of up to about 10 ccm. Susceptibility can be measured at two different frequencies of the exciting magnetic field.
From the resulting different numbers for this frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility we are able to make assumptions about the magnetic domain status and thus magnetic grain size. Furthermore the MS2 may be equipped with different coil sensors MS2C of various diameters which are used for the measurement of whole or split sediment cores. Different spot (or surface) sensors MS22E/F are used for the high-resolution susceptibility measurement of split cores. Beyond in-door operation the instrument may be used in battery mode for field surveys in combination with different sensor types.
MS2 Manual
John Dearing - Environmental Magnetic Susceptibility

Bartington MS2 with bulk sensor MS2B






British Antarctic

British Antarctic

British Antarctic

British Antarctic

British Antarctic


Research group Marine Geophysics
Faculty of Geosciences | FB5